In the 1820 of the 19th century oil lamp kerosene, crude oil processing capacity ofless crude oil distillation still distillation method is used (batch of crude oil into thedistillation pot, heated in a kettle). In the 1880 of the 19th century, with crude oil processing capacity increased, will 4~10 distillation Kettle series, continuous into crude oil, called a continuous still distillation. In 1912, the United States M.T. Trumbulltube-type heating furnaces and distillation process of crude oil, forming a modernprototype of continuous distillation of crude oil, crude oil processing volume is growing. Nearly 30 years, the distillation of crude oil along the direction of expanding treatment capacity and improve the efficiency of equipment development, gradually formed a large modern device (see picture). China now has more than 40 setsof crude oil distillation units, total processing capacity than 100Mt.
Crude distillation yields depends largely on the nature of the crude oil. China's Daqing crude oil gasoline (before 130 ℃) yield is about 4.2%, jet fuel fractions (130~240℃) is about 9.9%, light diesel oil distillate (240~350℃) is about 14.5%, heavy distillate oil (350~500℃) is about 29.7%, the remainder being residue (about 41.7%). Shengli crude oil gasoline (before 200 c) was about 7%, light diesel oil distillate (200~350℃) is about 18%, heavy oil fractions (350~525℃) about 30%, crudeoil is about 45%.
Crude oil distillation device is the largest energy consumption in oil refineries, chemical system engineering planning method is used, so that the heat is more reasonable. In addition, when using computer-controlled furnace combustion air flue gas waste heat and recycling, to reduce energy consumption significantly.